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Tense किसी कार्य के समय एवं अवस्था को व्यक्त करता है |

TENSE

1. Present 2. Past 3. Future

Sub-Division:- • Indefinite • Continuous • Perfect • Perfect Continuous

 

नोट: प्रश्न सामान्यत: formula अथवा confusing जोड़े पर आधारित होते हैं|


CONFUSING PAIR :
(1) Simple Present          and      Present Continuous
(2) Continuous                and      Perfect Continuous
(3) Present Perfect         and      Simple Past
(4) Simple Past               and      Past Perfect

 

(1) PRESENT INDEFINITE: Present Indefinite के अंतर्गत हम विभिन्न प्रकार के कार्यों को रख सकते हैं |

(i) Routine action Regular action (नियमित कार्य) – I come here daily.
Irregular action (अनियमित कार्य)- Earthquakes come in Japan.
Habits (आदत)- He smokes.
Universal truth (सार्वभौमिक सत्य ) – The sun rises in the east.
(ii) नोट: Newspaper की headlines और sports के commentary में भी simple present tense का प्रयोग होता है |

जैसे: PM signs deal.
Sachin strikes the ball and off it goes across the boundary line.

(iii) निकट भविष्य में किसी planned कार्य को व्यक्त करने के लिए भी simple present tense हो सकता है |
जैसे: The Prime Minister leaves for China next week.

Formula: + ve -> Sub + V1 + obj.( अगर Sub I, we, they, you अथवा plural हो )

                    – ve -> Sub + do not (don’t) + V1 + obj.
                  Ques -> Do + Sub + V1 + obj?
                  Do + Sub + not+ V1 + obj?
                  Don’t + Sub + V1 + obj?

          + ve -> Sub + V1 + s/es + obj. (अगर sub he, she, it, name या singular हो )
          – ve -> Sub + does not (doesn’t) + V1 + obj.
          Ques -> Does + Sub + V1 + obj?
          Does + Sub + not+ V1 + obj?
          Doesn’t + Sub + V1 + obj?

Correct the following sentences:-
जैसे: (1) What he knows about you? (×)
What does he know about you?.()
(2) I don’t know what he knows about you.()
(3) The appeal of the victims to transfer the cases related to riots to some
other States do not affect the merit of the case (change do to does)

वाक्य 1 एवं 2 की व्याख्या
पहले वाक्य में ‘what’ का प्रयोग सवाल पूछने के लिए किया जा रहा है | अत: ‘what’ के बाद ‘Question form’ का प्रयोग करें | दूसरे वाक्य में ‘what’ दो वाक्यों को जोड़ रहा है | अत: ‘what’ के बाद ‘sentence form’ का प्रयोग करें न कि ‘question form’ का |

वाक्य 3 की व्याख्या
(3) एक वाक्य में verb उस sub के अनुसार होना चाहिए जो वाक्य का main sub हो| अक्सर हम verb को नजदीक वाले Subject से match कर देते है लेकिन ऐसा करना गलत है |

 

 

SIMPLE PAST

जो कार्य खत्म हो चुका वह simple past के अंतर्गत आता है |
जैसे:I saw you but you did not see me.
Formulae: Sub + V2 + obj
                      Sub + did not (didn’t) + V1 + obj
                      Did + Sub + V1 + obj ?
                      Did + Sub + not + V1 + obj ?
                      Didn’t + sub + V1 + obj ?

नोट: अगर वाक्य कि शुरुआत ‘It’s time’ या ‘It’s high time’ से हो और उसके बाद sub का प्रयोग हो तो sub के बाद verb के 2nd form का प्रयोग होगा |
जैसे:It’s time you should study. (×)
It’s time you studied. (✓)

लेकिन अगर ‘It’s time’ के बाद to का प्रयोग हो तो to के बाद verb का 1st form आएगा |
जैसे:It’s time to study.
नोट: (1) You do come here everyday. (✓)
(2) He did make a mistake. (✓)

सामान्यत: एक वाक्य में do, does एवं did का प्रयोग Helping verb के रूप में positive
वाक्य में नहीं होता| लेकिन अगर main verb पर जोर देना हो तो हम do, does एवं did का प्रयोग main verb के पहले करते है | ऐसे वाक्य में main verb ‘v1’ form में होना चाहिए |
नोट: अगर वाक्य में भूत काल के समय का उल्लेख हो तो Past Tense का प्रयोग होता है|
जैसे: I have come yesterday (×)
I came yesterday (✓)

 

SIMPLE FUTURE
जो कार्य भविष्य में होगा वह Simple Future tense के अंतर्गत आता है |
जैसे: I shall meet you.
Formulae: + ve -> Sub + shall/ will + V1 + obj
                       -ve -> Sub + shall/ will + not + V1 + obj
                       Sub + shan’t/ won’t + V1 + obj
                      Ques -> Shall/will + sub + V1 + obj ?
                      Shall/ will + sub + not + V1 + obj ?
                      Shan’t/ won’t + sub + V1 + obj ?

नोट: Shall/will का प्रयोग Modals में विस्तार से दिया गया है|

 

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
जो कार्य वर्तमान में यानी वाक्य को बोलते समय हो रहा हो वह Present Continuous tense के अंतर्गत आता है |
जैसे:  (1) I am studying Tense now.

कई बार कार्य जारी अवस्था में होते हुए भी दिखाई नहीं देते | उन्हें भी ‘Present Continuous Tense’ के अंतर्गत रखा जा सकता है |
जैसे:  (1) Coastal areas are getting submerged.
(2) Population is increasing day by day.

नोट: निकट भविष्य में होने वाले किसी कार्य को व्यक्त करने के लिए भी हम Present Continuous Tense का प्रयोग करते है |
जैसे: I am going to Mumbai tomorrow.

Formulae: + ve -> Sub + is/ am/ are + v1 + ing+ obj
                       – ve -> Sub + is/ are/ am/ + not + v1 + ing+ obj
                      Sub + isn’t/ aren’t/ am not + v1 + ing+ obj
                     Ques -> Is/ am/ are + S + v1 + ing+ obj?
                     Is/ am/ are + S + not + v1 + ing+ obj?
                     Isn’t/ aren’t + S + v1 + ing+ obj?

नोट: ‘am not’ का कोई contracted form नहीं होता है लेकिन Question Tag में aren’t का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है |
जैसे: I am fine, aren’t I ?

-> Is/am/are का प्रयोग
     Is – he/she/it/name/singular के साथ
     Am – I के साथ
    Are – you/we/they/all/plural के साथ

नोट: My father is working in a bank and my brother is studying is a school. (×)
My father works in a bank and my brother studies in a school. (✓)

-> जो वाक्य ‘routine’ हो तो Present Continuous का प्रयोग न करें बल्कि ‘simple present’ का प्रयोग करें|लेकिन अगर कार्य ऐसा हो जो कुछ अवधि के लिए ही routine action रहे तो present continuous tense का प्रयोग कर सकते है |
जैसे:I am preparing for competitive exams now-a-days.

 

PAST CONTINUOUS
-> जो कार्य भूतकाल में हो रहा हो वह Past Continuous tense के अंतर्गत आता है |
जैसे: I was waiting for you

Formulae:       + Ve -> Sub + was/were + V 1 + ing + obj
                             – Ve -> Sub + was/were + not + V 1 + ing + obj
                                           Sub + wasn’t/weren’t + V 1 + ing + obj
                         Ques -> Was/were + Sub + V1 + ing + obj?
                                          Was/were + Sub + not+ V1 + ing + obj?
                                          Wasn’t/weren’t + Sub + V1 + ing + obj?

->  Was/were का प्रयोग
      Was -> He/she/it/name/singular/I के साथ
     Were -> You/we/they/plural/all के साथ

-> काल्पनिक वाक्यों में सभी sub के साथ ‘were’ का प्रयोग होता है चाहे ‘were’ का प्रयोग ‘helping verb’ के रूप में हो या ‘main verb’ के रूप में |

जैसे: 1. I wish, I were a bird.
2. He pretended as if he were sleeping.

 

FUTURE CONTINUOUS

-> जो कार्य भविष्य में हो रहा होगा वह Future Continuous tense के अंतर्गत आता है |
जैसे: We shall be taking the exam at this time, next month.

Formulae:  + Ve -> Sub + shall/ will + be + V1 + ing + obj

                         – Ve -> Sub + shall/ will + not + be + V 1 + ing + obj
                                      Sub + shan ‘t/ won ‘t + be + V1 + ing + obj
                      Ques ->shall/ will +Sub + be + V1 + ing + obj ?
                                     shall/ will +Sub + not + be + V1 + ing + obj ?
                                     shan ‘t/ won ‘t + Sub + be + V1 + ing + obj ?

नोट: कुछ verbs का प्रयोग हम continuous tense में नहीं कर सकते क्योंकि कुछ ऐसे verbs होते है जिनका प्रयोग सामान्यत: ‘ing’ form में नहीं होता |

ऐसे VERBS कि सूची
(1) Verbs of Perception- See, taste, smell, hear, prefer, please, notice, recognize.
(2) Verbs of Thinking Process- Think, know, mean, mind, remember, suppose.
(3) Verbs Showing Possession- Own, have, belong, comprise, possess, contain, consist.
(4) Verbs expressing Feelings or State of Mind- Believe, like, dislike, love, adore, want, wish, desire, hate, agree, trust, imagine.
(5) Verbs in General- Look, seem, appear, affect, resemble, cost, require, become, hope, refuse.

उदहारण देखें –
जैसे: 1. He is owing a car. (×)
He owns a car. (✓)
2. This house is belonging to me. (×)
This house belongs to me. (✓)
3. I am not meaning anything wrong. (×)
I don’t mean anything wrong. (✓)
4. I am seeing a man standing there. (×)
I see a man standing there. (✓)

नोट: अगर ‘have’ का अर्थ ‘अधिकार होना’ हो तो ‘have’ में ‘ing’ का प्रयोग नहीं होगा | अगर ‘have’ का अर्थ निकलता है खाना / enjoy करना तो ‘have’ में ‘ing’ का प्रयोग हो सकता है |
जैसे: I am having a piece of cake. (✓)
I am having a car. (×)
I have a car. (✓)

हम Think, remember, feel, look, appear etc. (जिनका प्रयोग सामान्य वाक्यों में ‘ing’ में नहीं होना चाहिए ) का प्रयोग अगर भावनाओं को दर्शाने के लिए करते है तब उनका प्रयोग ‘ing’ form में किया जा सकता है |
( eg- 2 एवं 4 देखें)

जैसे: 1. I am thinking you are right. (×)
I think you are right. (✓)

2. I am thinking of you. (✓)
3. It was appearing as if they were going to kill us. (×)
It appeared as if they were going to kill us.(✓)
4. You are looking good. (✓)

2. Gerund एवं Present participle में verb ‘ing’ form में होते हैं |
जैसे:(1) Being ill, I could not come.
(2) Getting a job is easy now-a-days.
(3) Seeing is believing.
(4) Swimming is a good exercise.

3. सभी preposition के बाद अगर verb का प्रयोग होता है तो verb ‘ing’ form में होना चाहिए |

जैसे: (1) Bats are capable of hearing the ultrasonic waves.
(2) We must keep away from smoking .

 

PRESENT PERFECT

-> जो कार्य अभी-अभी या हाल फिलहाल खत्म हुआ हो वह Present Perfect Tense के अंतर्गत आता है |
जैसे: He has come to Delhi recently.

जब कार्य महत्वपूर्ण हो न कि कार्य होने का समय एवं कार्य होने के समय का उल्लेख भी नहीं हो तब Present perfect Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है |
जैसे:We have progressed a lot.
We have reached the moon.

Formulae: + Ve -> Sub + has/ have + V3 + obj
                       – Ve -> Sub + has/ have + not + V3 + obj
                       Sub + hasn’t/ haven’t + V3 + obj

        Ques -> Has/ have + Sub + V3 + obj ?
                        Has/ have + Sub +not+ V3 + obj ?
                       Hasn’t/ haven’t + Sub + V3 + obj ?

 

Has/have के प्रयोग

has – He/ She/ It/ Name/Singular के साथ
have- I/ We/ They/ You/ Plural/ All के साथ

अंतर देखें :
1. Science has given us many new inventions. (✓)
2. We have reached the moon. (✓)

1. Science has given us many new inventions in the 19th century. (×)
2. We have reached the moon on 22nd Oct, 2008. (×)

-> अगर भूतकाल के समय का उल्लेख हो तो Present perfect नहीं Simple past Tense का प्रयोग करें |
यानि ऊपर दिए गए दोनों वाक्यों के सही रूप होंगे |
1. Science gave us many life saving drugs in the 19th century. (✓)
2. We reached the moon on 22nd Oct, 2008. (✓)

नोट: 1. I have had enough problems here (✓)
He has had his breakfast (✓)

एक वाक्य में have के किसी भी form ( यहाँ have के forms helping verb होंगे ) के बाद had ( had main verb होगा) क्योंकि ये Present perfect एवं Past perfect के Formulae में fit होते है |

2. सामान्यत: recently, already, yet, so far का प्रयोग perfect tense में होता है | ‘yet’
का प्रयोग perfect tense -ve वाक्य में होता है |
जैसे: He has not reached home yet (present perfect)
He had not done any work so far . (Past perfect)

3. अगर since के बाद simple past का प्रयोग हो तो since के पहले present perfect
का प्रयोग होगा
जैसे: I haven’t seen him since he left India .

नोट: 1. ऐसे वाक्यों में present perfect के स्थान पर कोई modal भी perfect form में आ सकता है |
जैसे: He may have grown old since she last saw him.

2. अगर since का प्रयोग वाक्य के शुरुआत में कर लिया जाए तो simple past भी since
के साथ वाक्य के प्रथम भाग में आ जाएगा |
जैसे: Since he joined the army , he has not taken any leave.

 

PAST PERFECT

निचे दिए गए विभिन्न वाक्यों को देखें :-
1. I saw him before he stopped his car. (×)
I had seen him before he stopped his car. (✓)

2. Before he understood anything the robber fled. (×)
Before he understood anything the robber had fled. (✓)

3. I met him after I finished my work. (×)
I met him after I had finished my work. (✓)

4. By the time I reached the theater, the show started. (×)
By the time I reached the theater, the show had started. (✓)

5. When Anand reached his village, he found that the news about him had preceded him. (✓).

-> प्रथम वाक्य का formation निम्न प्रकार से है –

1st action                       before                 2nd action
Past Perfect                                              Simple Past

-> द्वितीय वाक्य का formation निम्न प्रकार से है –

Before का प्रयोग अगर शुरू में हो तो 2nd action / S .Past , 1st action /Past Perfect

-> तीसरे वाक्य का formation निम्न प्रकार से है –
2nd action /Simple Past       after            1st action / Past Perfect

-> चौथे वाक्य का formation निम्न प्रकार से है –

By the time       2nd action / Simple Past,       1st action /Past Perfect

-> अगर दो कार्य Past में एक के बाद एक हो , तो पहला कार्य Past perfect में होगा | और दूसरा Simple Past tense.

Formulae: + Ve ->Sub + had + V3 + obj
                       – Ve -> Sub + had + not (hadn’t) + V3 + obj
                    Ques -> Had + sub + V3 + obj ?
                                    Had + sub +not + V3 + obj ?
                                    Hadn’t + sub + V3 + obj ?

नोट: वाक्य 5 को देखें :-
When Anand reached his village, he found that the news about him had preceded him.

वाक्य की व्याख्या –
-> जब Anand गाँव पहुँच (Simple Past) तो पाया कि उसके बारे में जो News थी वह उससे पहले पहुँच चुकी थी | (Precede का अर्थ है ‘से पहले आना’ )| अगर कोई action ‘simple past ‘ से पहले होता है तो वह ‘past perfect tense’ में होता है | अत: ‘news का पहुंचना’ Past perfect Tense में होगा |

 

FUTURE PERFECT

जो कार्य भविष्य में खत्म हो चुका होगा वह Future Perfect के अंतर्गत आता है |
जैसे: You will have finished your syllabus by this time next year.

नोट: निचे दिए गए sentence formation देखें:-
जैसे:By the time I reach the station, the train will have left.

By the time,   Simple Present,    Future Perfect

 

Formulae: + Ve ->Sub + will/shall + have + V3 + obj
                       -Ve -> Sub + will/shall + not + have + V3 + obj
                                    Sub + won’t/shan’t + have + V3 + obj
                   Ques -> Will/shall + Sub + have+ V3 + obj ?
                                   Will/shall + Sub + not + have + V3 + obj ?
                                   Won’t/shan’t + Sub +have + V3 + obj ?

अंतर देखें :-
1. By the time I reach the station, the train will have left.
2. By the time I reached the station, the train had left .

 

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
-> जो कार्य भूतकाल में शुरू हुआ हो और अभी भी चल रहा हो वह Present Perfect Continuous tense के अंतर्गत आता है |
जैसे:I have been living in Delhi for five years.

Formulae:

+ Ve ->Sub + has/ have + been + V1 + ing + obj+ for/ since + time.
– Ve -> Sub + has/ have + not + been + V1 + ing + obj+ for/ since + time.
              Sub + hasn’t/ haven’t + been + V1 + ing + obj+ for/ since + time.

Ques -> Has/ have + Sub + + been + V1+ ing + obj + for/ since + time?
                Has/have + Sub +not+ been + V1+ing + obj + for/since +time?
                Hasn’t/ haven’t + Sub + been + V1 + ing + obj + for/ since + time?

जैसे:I am teaching you since an hour. (×)
I have been teaching you for an hour. (✓)

->  For- जब समय की अवधि का उल्लेख हो तब ‘For’ का प्रयोग करें |
जैसे: For two hours, for last 2 years
For five days, for last 2 months
For 10 years, for last 3 वीक्स

->  Since- जब शुरूआती समय का उल्लेख हो तब since का प्रयोग करें |
जैसे: Since monday, since the beginning
Since 2008, since time immemorial
Since 7 P.M., since last year

Since का प्रयोग – कैलेंडर , घडी, दिन के पहर एवं जीवन की अवस्थाओं के साथ ‘since’ का प्रयोग होता है –

 

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
-> जो कार्य भूतकाल में शुरू हुआ, चला और भूतकाल में खत्म हो गया वे Past Perfect Continuous Tense के अंतर्गत आते हैं |
जैसे: I had been waiting for you since morning.

Formulae: + Ve -> Sub + had + been + V1 + ing + obj + for/ since + time.
                       -Ve -> Sub + had + not (hadn’t) + been + V1 + ing + obj + for/ since + time.

                   Ques -> Had + sub + been + V1 + ing + obj + for/ since + time ?
                                   Had + sub + not+ been + V1 + ing + obj + for/ since + time ?
                                  Hadn’t + sub + been + V1 + ing + obj + for/ since + time ?

 

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

-> जो कार्य भविष्य के किसी समय तक जारी रहेगा वह Future Perfect Continuous tense के अंतर्गत आता है|
जैसे:I shall have been living in Delhi for five years by the end of this year. He will have been playing from 2 O’ clock

Formulae: + Ve -> Sub + shall/will + have + been + V1 +ing + obj +for/ from+time
                      – Ve -> Sub + shall/will + not + have + been + V1 + ing + obj + for/from + time
                                   Sub + shan’t/won’t + have + been + V1 + ing + obj + for/ from + time
                  Ques -> Will/shall+sub + have + been + V1 + ing + obj + for/ from+time?
                                   Will/shall + sub + not + have + been + V1 + ing + obj + for/from + time ?
                                   Won’t/shan’t + sub + have + been + V1 + ing + obj + for/ from + time ?

नोट: 1. जिन verbs का प्रयोग सामान्यत: ‘ing’ में नहीं होता , उनका प्रयोग continuous/perfect continuous दोनों तरह के tense में नहीं हो सकता क्योंकि दोनों में verb ‘ing’ form में होते है| अगर ऐसे ‘verbs’ continuous tense में हो तो उन्हें indefinite tense में परिवर्तित कर दें |

जैसे: I am knowing you. (×)
I know you. (✓)
2. अगर ऐसे verbs ‘perfect continuous’ में हो तो उन्हें ‘Perfect Tense’ में परिवर्तित कर दें|
जैसे: I have been knowing him for five years. (×)
I have known him for five years. (✓)
3. For/Since का प्रयोग perfect and perfect continuous दोनों प्रकार के Tense होता है |
जैसे:I have been living in Delhi for five years. (✓)
I had known him for two years.(✓)

4. अगर वाक्य में Since + time का प्रयोग होता है तो वाक्य सिर्फ perfect या perfect continuous Tense में ही होने चाहिए |
जैसे:I ate nothing since morning. (×)
I have eaten nothing since morning. (✓)

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