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Subject Verb Agreement

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♦   किस भी Sentence में Subject के Number तथा Person के अनुसार Verb का प्रयोग Subject-Verb Agreement कहलाता है |
1. He comes . (यदि Subject ‘Singular‘ हो तो Verb ‘Singular‘ प्रयुक्त होता है |)
2. They come . ( यदि Subject ‘Plural’ हो तो Verb ‘Plural’ प्रयुक्त होता है |)

 


♦  Verb का सही रूप में प्रयोग करने के लिए यह आवश्यक है कि आप SingularPlural Verb को पहचानें |

Singular Verb: is, Has, was, V1+s/es (plays, goes etc.)

Plural Verb: are, were, have,  V1 (play, go etc.)

 

Verb एवं Noun के बीच का अंतर

Noun + s/ es -> Plural Noun    (Noun में s/es लगाने पर वह Plural बन जाता है )
Verb + s/ es -> Singular Verb (Verb में s/es लगाने पर वह Singular बन जाता है)

 

RULE 1

♦   अगर दो Sub. को ‘and’ से जोड़ा जाये तो Plural Verb का प्रयोग होगा |
जैसे: (1) Ram and Shyam are coming.

 

RULE 2
♦  यदि दो या दो से अधिक Nouns या Adjectives को ‘and’ से जोड़ा जाए लेकिन वे एक ही व्यक्ति, वास्तु या idea को प्रदर्शित करे तो Singular verb का प्रयोग होगा |
My friend, philosopher and guide have come. (change ‘have’ to ‘has’)
Slow and steady win the race. (change ‘win’ to ‘wins’)
Fish and chips is my favorite dish.(✓)

नोट: (i) यदि दो uncountable nouns ‘and’ से जुड़कर sentence के subject के रूप में प्रयुक्त हो तथा इससे अलग अलग sub. का बोध हो तो इसके साथ plural verb का प्रयोग होता है |

जैसे: (1) and misery come together. (✓) Poverty

 

RULE 3

♦  यदि दो Sub को ‘as well as’, ‘with’, ‘alongwith’, ‘together with’, ‘and not’, ‘In addition to’, ‘but’, ‘besides’, ‘except’, ‘rather than’, ‘accompanied by’, ‘like’, ‘unlike’, ‘no less than’, ‘nothing but’ से जोड़ा जाए तो ‘verb’ पहले sub के अनुसार प्रयोग होना चाहिए |
जैसे: (1) Ram as well as his parents coming.
(2) The Captain along with the sailors was drowned.
(3) My father unlike my uncles is very strict.

 

RULE 4

♦  अगर Article का प्रयोग सिर्फ 1st sub के पहले हो तो इसका अर्थ होगा एक ही व्यक्ति अथवा वस्तु | अत: singular verb का प्रयोग होगा |
जैसे: (1) A white and black gown was bought by her.
(2) Churchil was a great orator and a great politician of his time.(×)
Churchil was a great orator and politician of his time.()

लेकिन अगर Article का प्रयोग सभी Sub. के पहले हो तो इसका अर्थ होगा अलग अलग व्यक्ति अथवा वस्तु |अत: plural verb का प्रयोग होगा |
जैसे: The director and the producer have come.(✓)

 

RULE 5
♦  यदि दो subject को ‘neither………nor’, ‘either……..or’, ‘not only’……..‘but also’, ‘nor’, ‘or’ या ‘none-but’ से जोड़ा जाए तो verb नजदीक वाले sub के अनुसार प्रयोग होना चाहिए |
जैसे: (1) Neither Ram nor Shyam has come.
(2) Either Ram or his friends have come.
(3) Has Ram or Shyam come?

 

RULE 6

♦   ‘Neither of …..’ का अर्थ ‘दो में से एक भी नहीं’ | ‘दो से अधिक’ में से ‘एक भी नहीं’ के लिए ‘none of’ का प्रयोग करें |
जैसे: Neither of his four sons looked after him. (×)
None of his four sons looked after him. (✓)

♦   ‘Either of ……’ का अर्थ है ‘दो में से एक’ | ‘दो से अधिक’ में से एक के लिए ‘One of’ का प्रयोग करें |
जैसे: Either of the five members is at fault. (×)
One of the five members is at fault. (✓)

नोट: ‘Both’ के साथ ‘not’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता क्योंकि ‘ दो में से एक भी नहीं’ के लिए neither of का प्रयोग होता है |

जैसे: Both of them did not take the exam. (×)
Neither of them took the exam. (✓)

 

RULE 7
♦   कुछ ‘Noun’ form से Plural होते है लेकिन अर्थ में Singular. इनके साथ singular Verb का प्रयोग करते है |
जैसे: (a) बीमारियों के नाम: Measles, Mumps, Rickets, Shingles etc.
(b) खेल के नाम: Billiards, Darts, Draughts, etc.
(c) देश के नाम: The United States, The West Indies, etc.
(d) पुस्तकों के नाम: The Arabian Nights, Three Muskeeters, etc.
(e) विषयों के नाम: Physics, Economics, Civics, Statistics, Politics,Linguistics.

जैसे:(1) Mathematics is an interesting subject.
(2) Politics is not my cup of tea.

नोट: यदि ‘Statistics’ से हमारा तात्पर्य ‘data’ हो, ‘Mathematics’ से हमारा तात्पर्य ‘Calculation’ हो और ‘Politics’ से हमारा तात्पर्य ‘राजनितिक विचारों’ से हो, तो इनका उपयोग बहुवचन में होगा |
जैसे: Statistics have revealed multiple scams in the organisation of Commonwealth Games.

 

RULE 8
♦   एक वाक्य में verb उस subject के अनुसार होना चाहिए जो वाक्य का main subject हो | हम अक्सर verb को नजदीक वाले subject से match करते है पर ऐसा करना गलत है |
जैसे: (1) The quality of apples is good.
(2) He and not his parents is guilty.
(3) The appeal of the victims for the transfer of the cases related to riots to some other States has been accepted.

 

RULE 9
♦   Collective Noun के साथ हमेशा Singular Verb का प्रयोग करें |
जैसे: (1) The herd of cows is grazing in the field.
(2) The committee has unanimously taken its decision.

नोट: लेकिन अगर Collective Noun में मतभेद हो या प्रत्येक व्यक्ति कि बात की जाए तो ‘Plural verb’ एवं ‘Plural Pronoun’ का प्रयोग करें |
जैसे: (1) The jury are divided in their opinion.
(2) The audience have taken their seats.

 

RULE 10
♦   Plural संख्या के साथ plural verb का प्रयोग होता है |
जैसे: Hundred boys are in my class.

नोट: अगर Cardinal Adjectives (one, two, three, four…etc.) के बाद Plural Noun का प्रयोग हो तथा Plural Noun से certain amount (निश्चित रकम) certain weight (निश्चित वजन) certain period (निश्चित अवधि) certain distance (निश्चित दूरी) certain height (ऊंचाई) का बोध हो तो इसके साथ Singular Verb का प्रयोग होता है न कि Plural Verb का | यानि अगर Plural संख्या को Singular unit के रूप में प्रयोग करें तो singular verb का प्रयोग होगा |

जैसे: (1) Hundred rupees is in my pocket.
(2) Ten miles is a long distance to cover on foot.

नोट: लेकिन, Cardinal Adjectives के बाद प्रयुक्त Plural Noun से अलग-अलग unit का बोध हो या कराना हो , तो इस Plural माना जाता है तथा इसके साथ Plural Verb का प्रयोग होता है |
जैसे: Hundred rupees are to be distributed among the students. (✓)

Note the difference
• Five thousand rupees is a handsome amount.
• Five thousand rupees have been spent on different useful commodities .

 

RULE 11
♦   अगर एक Relative Pronoun(who, which, that इत्यादि) के द्वारा एक sub को एक verb से जोड़ा जाये तो verb उस sub के अनुसार होना चाहिए जो उस Relative Pronoun का antecedent हो |
जैसे: (1) She is one of the noblest women that has ever lived on this earth.
(2) I am not one of those who will trust everyone whom I meet .

♦   हमेशा वाक्य के अर्थ को समझे | दूसरे वाक्य का अर्थ है ” मैं उन लोगों में से नहीं हूँ जो उन पर भरोसा कर लेते हैं जिन से वे मिलते है|” अत: ‘I meet’ नहीं ‘They meet’ का प्रयोग करें |

 

RULE 12
♦    Each, Every, Everyone, Someone, Somebody, Nobody, None, One, Any, Many a, More than one अर्थ से Singular हैं | इनके साथ Singular verb, Singular nounSingular pronoun का प्रयोग होता है |
जैसे: (1) Each student has come.
(2) Each boy and each girl has come.
(3) One must tolerate one’s friend as well as his enemy.
(4) Many a student havenot done their home work.
(5) More than one man was present there.

नोट: ‘Many’ का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में देखें-

जैसे: (1) Many a man has come.
(2) Many men have come.
(3) A great/A good many men have come.

 

RULE 13
♦   अगर each, every, one इत्यादि के बाद ‘of‘ का प्रयोग होता है, तो ‘of‘ के बाद आने वाला Noun अथवा Pronoun तो plural होता है लेकिन इसके बाद आने वाला Verb, Pronoun इत्यादि Singular होगा |
जैसे: One of the boys/them has done his work.

 

RULE 14
♦   Plural Noun या Plural Pronoun के बाद each का प्रयोग हो, तो इसे Plural माना जाता है तथा इसके साथ Plural Verb का प्रयोग होता है |
जैसे: We each have a duty towards our nation. (✓)

 

RULE 15
♦   Indefinite Pronoun – ‘One’ का प्रयोग Sentence के Subject के रूप में हो, तो इसके साथ Singular Verb का प्रयोग होता है तथा इसके लिए Singular Pronouns – one, one’s,oneself का प्रयोग होता है न कि he, him, his, himself का |
जैसे: One should keep his promise. (×)
One should keep one’s promise. (✓)

 

RULE 16

♦   काल्पनिक वाक्य प्राय: if, as if, as though, suppose, I wish, in case अथवा would that से शुरू होते है | इन शब्दों के बाद चाहे किसी भी Number तथा Person के Subject का प्रयोग हो | Plural Verb ‘were’ का ही प्रयोग होता है न कि ‘was’ का |
जैसे: (1) I wish, I were a bird.
(2) If he were rich, he would help others.

 

RULE 17

♦   Optative Sentence में Singular Subject के साथ भी Plural Verb का प्रयोग होता है |
जैसे: (1) God save the king!
(2) Long live the Queen !

 

RULE 18

♦    A number of/A large number of/A great number of का प्रयोग Plural Countable Noun के साथ होता है तथा इसके साथ Plural Verb का प्रयोग होता है |
जैसे: A number of students were present.
नोट: लेकिन, The number of का प्रयोग एक निश्चित संख्या, के अर्थ में होता है इसके बाद Plural Sub. का प्रयोग होता है तथा इसका प्रयोग Sentence में Subject के रूप में होने पर, इसके साथ Singular Verb का प्रयोग होता है |
जैसे: The number of boys are fifty. (×)
The number of boys is fifty. (✓)

 

RULE 19

♦   अगर ‘Amount of/quantity of’ Uncountable Noun के साथ प्रयोग होते है तब इनका प्रयोग Sentence के Subject के रूप में होने पर इनके साथ Singular Verb का प्रयोग होता है |

जैसे: The amount of money are not sufficient.(×)
The amount of money is not sufficient. (✓)

 

RULE 20
♦   ‘All’ का प्रयोग uncountable के अर्थ में हो तो, इसे Singular माना जाता है, तथा इसके साथ Singular Verb का प्रयोग होता है |

जैसे: All is well that ends well.

लेकिन ‘All’ का प्रयोग ‘ व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं कि संख्या’ का बोध करने के लिए हो, तो इसे Plural माना जाता है, तथा इसके साथ Plural verb का प्रयोग होता है |
जैसे: All are well at home. (✓)

 

RULE 21
♦    Furniture, advice, work, evidence, equipment, news, information, luggage, baggage, percentage, poetry, knowledge, dirt, dust, traffic, electricity, music, breakage, stationary, scenery, confectionery, pottery, bakery, crockery, का प्रयोग Uncountable Nouns के रूप में होता है | इसलिए इसके साथ Singular Verb का प्रयोग होता है |
जैसे: (1) The scenery of Kasmir has enchanted us.
(2) I passed but the percentage of marks was not good.

 

RULE 22

♦    कुछ Nouns का प्रयोग हमेशा Plural form में ही होता है | इन Nouns के अंत में लगे ‘s’ को हटाकर, इन्हे Singular नहीं बनाया जा सकता है| ये दिखने में भी Plural लगते है, एवं इनका प्रयोग भी Plural कि तरह ही होता है | ऐसे Nouns निम्न है:
Scissors, tongs (चीमटा), pliers, pincers, bellows (फूँकनी), trousers, pants, pajamas, shorts, gallows( फांसी का फंदा ), fangs(डंक),
spectacles, goggles,binoculars (दूरबीन), sunglasses, Alms (दान), amends (संशोधन), archives (ऐतिहासिक दस्तावेज), arrears, auspices, congratulations, embers (राख), fireworks, lodgings, outskirts, particulars, proceeds, regards, riches, remains, savings, shambles, surroundings, tidings, troops, tactics, thanks, valuables, wages,belongings, braces, etc.

जैसे: (a) Where are my pants?
(b) Where are the tongs?
(c) The proceeds were deposited in the bank.
(d) All his assets were seized.
(e) Alms were given to the beggars.
(f) The embers of the fire were still burnings.

 

RULE 23
♦   कुछ Nouns दिखने में Plural लगते हैं लेकिन अर्थ में Singular होते है | इनके प्रयोग हमेशा Singular में ही होता है | जैसे: News, Innings, Politics, Summons, Physics, Economics, Ethics, Mathematics, Mumps, Measles, Rickets,Shingles, Billiards, Athletics etc.
जैसे: (a) No news is good news.
(b) Politics is a dirty game.
(c) Economics is an interesting subject.
(d) Ethics demands honesty.

 

RULE 24

♦   कुछ Nouns दिखने में Singular लगते है, लेकिन इनका प्रयोग हमेशा Plural में होता है | जैसे: cattle, cavalry, infantry, poultry, peasantry, children, gentry, police, people, etc. इनके साथ कभी भी ‘s’ नहीं लगाया जाता, जैसे: cattles, childrens लिखना गलत है |

जैसे: (a) Cattle are grazing in the field.
(b) Our infantry have marched forward.
(c) Police have arrested the thieves.

नोट: ‘People’ का अर्थ है ‘लोग’ | ‘Peoples‘ का अर्थ है ‘ विभिन्न मूलवंश के लोग’ |

 

RULE 25

♦    कुछ Nouns का प्रयोग, केवल Singular form में ही किया जाता है| ये Uncountable Nouns हैं | इनके साथ Article A/An का प्रयोग भी नहीं किया जाता है | जैसे: Scenery, Poetry, Furniture, Advice, Information, Hair, Business, Mischief, Bread, Stationery, Crockery, Luggage, Baggage, Postage, Knowledge, Wastage, Money, Jewellery, Breakage, Equipment,Work, Evidence, Word (जब ‘word’ का अर्थ वाद, सन्देश या परिचर्चा हो ), Fuel एवं Paper.

जैसे: (a) The scenery of Kashmiris very charming.
(b) I have no information about her residence.
(c) The mischief committed by him is unpardonable
(d) His hair is black.
(e) I have bought some equipment that I needed for the project.

(i) इन Nouns का बहुवचन नहीं बनाया जा सकता| जैसे: Sceneries, informations, furnitures, hairs इत्यादि लिखना गलत है|
(ii) यदि उक्त Noun का Singular या Plural दोनों forms में आवश्यकता हो तो, इनके साथ कुछ शब्द जोड़े जाते है|

निचे दिए गए उदाहरण देखें:
(a) He gave me a piece of information.
(b) All pieces of information given by her were reliable.
(c) Many kinds of furniture are available in that shop.
(d) I want a few articles of jewellery.
(e) He ate two slices of bread.
(f) Please show me some items of office stationery.
(g) The Police have found a strand of hair in the car.

 

RULE 26
♦   कुछ Nouns, Plural एवं Singular दोनों में एक ही रूप में रहते है | जैसे: deer,sheep, series , species, fish, crew, team, jury, aircraft, counsel etc.

जैसे: (a) Our team is the best.
(b) Our team are trying their new uniform.
(c) There are two fish in the pond.
(d) There are many fishes in the aquarium.(‘Fishes‘ का अर्थ है विभिन्न प्रजातियों के fish)

 

RULE 27

निचे दिए गए Table को ध्यान से पढ़ें-

S. No. Words +Noun/Pronoun Verb
1. No + U. N. Singular Verb
2. No + S. C. N. Singular Verb
3. One-third of / three-fourths of / The rest of / A
quarter of / Part of / Ten percent of / Twenty Percent of
+ U. N. Singular Verb
4. One-third of / three-fourths of/ Part of / Ten percent of / Twenty percent of + P. C. N. Plural Verb
5. Most of / Some / Some of / Half of/ Enough /Enough of / Not enough of/ Plenty of / A lot of/Lots of + U. N. Singular Verb
6. Most of / Some / Some of /Half of/ Enough / Enough of / Not enough of/ Plenty of / A lot of/ Lots of + P. C. N. Plural Verb
7. The percentage of + U.N / P. C. N. Singular Verb
8. More than one + S. C. N. Singular Verb
9. More than two/three. etc. + P. C. N. Plural Verb
10. More + P. C. N. + than One Plural Verb

 

 

नीचे दिए गए उदाहरण देखें –
1. No air is present on the Mars.
2. No student was interested in taking the exam.
3. One-third of the work has been finished.
4. One-third of the students have passed.
5. Ninety percent of the work is done.
6. Most of the knowledge is gained by experience.
7. Most of the girls are absent today.
8. Ninety percent of the students have passed with good marks.
9. Half of the candidates have passed with flying colours.
10. Some of the students have not taken the exam.
11. The percentage of unsuccessful candidates is ten.
12. More than one city was in ruins.
13. More cities than one were in ruins.
14. More than two theives have been caught red handed.
15. More plans than one were made.

नोट: वाक्य 12 एवं 13 के बीच का अंतर देखें-

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Ranking Test Practice Set
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Ranking Test Practice Set

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Ranking Test Practice Set
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Ranking Test Practice Set

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Ranking Test Practice Set
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Ranking Test Practice Set

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Ranking Test Practice Set
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Ranking Test Practice Set
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Sitting Arrangements Practice Set
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Sitting Arrangements Practice Set

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