Verb का वह रूप Voice कहलाता है जिससे पता चलता है की कर्ता कोई काम करता है या कर्ता पर कोई काम होता है |
Verb का वह रूप active voice कहलाता है जिससे ज्ञात हो कि कर्ता (Sub) किसी क्रिया (verb) को किसी कर्म (obj) पर करता है
General Formula:- Sub + verb + obj
♦ Verb का वह रूप Passive Voice कहलाता है जिससे ये ज्ञात होता है कि कर्म (obj) पर किसी क्रिया (verb) का प्रभाव पड़ता है ।
General Formula:- Obj + Helping Verb + V + by + sub
♦ Passive Voice का प्रयोग कहाँ होता है ?
1. जब क्रिया स्वत: नहीं होता बल्कि उसे किया जाता है |
जैसे: Tea grows both in Assam and Ceylon. (×)
Tea is grown both in Assam and Ceylon. (✓)
2. जब क्रिया महत्वपूर्ण हो यानि ‘घटना’ |
जैसे: He was rushed to the hospital where he was declared brought dead.
♦ इस वाक्य में ‘घटना’ महत्वपूर्ण है यानि किसी ‘दुर्घटना’ के बाद घायल व्यक्ति को तुरंत अस्पताल ले जाना और उसे मृत घोषित किया जाना@ यहाँ घायल को अस्पताल ले जाने वाले ‘लोग’ और ये घोषणा करने वाले ‘डाक्टर’ कि घायल को मृत लाया गया अप्रासंगिक (irrelevant) है|
3. जब करता को पता नहीं या ये महत्वपूर्ण नहीं कि कर्ता ज्ञात हो|
जैसे: People were relocated from the flood affected villages.
अब विभिन्न Tense के active एवं passive Voice देखें –
|Simple Present||Sub + V1 + obj||Obj + is/am/are + V3 + by + sub.|
|Simple Past||Sub + V2 + obj||Obj + was/were + V3 + by + sub.|
|Simple Future||Sub + shall/will + V1 + obj||Obj + shall/will + be+ V3 + by + sub.|
|Modal||Sub + modal + V1 + obj||Obj + modal + be+ V3 + by + sub.|
CHANGE THE VOICE
1. Police arrested him. 1. He was arrested.
2. People speak English all over the world. 2. English is spoken all over the world.
3. A teacher teaches English here. 3. English is taught here.
4. No one desire riots. 4. Riots are not desired.
5. I will not tolerate this nonsense. 5. This nonsense will not be tolerated by me.
Explanation of sentences no. 1, 2 & 3.
♦ कुछ क्रियाएं निश्चित sub के द्वारा किए जाते है| ऐसे वाक्यों में active voice में उसी sub का प्रयोग करें जो सामान्यत: वह कार्य करता हो अगर passive voice में sub का उल्लेख नहीं हो |
♦ इसी प्रकार क्रियायें अगर किसी indefinite pronoun या vague noun के द्वारा किए जाएं तो Passive voice में ‘by + sub‘ का प्रयोग न करें| ऐसा तब भी किया जाता है जब ‘sub’ इतना obvious हो कि उसका उल्लेख करना जरुरी नहीं हो |
♦ Be (या उसके forms) अगर main verb के स्थान पर हो तो वाक्य passive voice में नहीं हो सकता|
जैसे: 1. I am happy. (A.V)
2. He should be polite. (A.V)
♦ इन दोनों वाक्यों का passive voice नहीं बन सकता |
|Present Continuous||Sub + is/ am/ are/ V1 + ing + obj||Obj + is/am/are + being + V3 + by + sub|
|Past Continuous||Sub + was / were + V1 + ing + obj||Obj + was/were + being + V3 + by + sub|
|Future Continuous||Sub + shall/will + be + V1 + ing + obj||Future Continuous का Passive नहीं बनाया जा सकता है||
|Modal Continuous||Sub + modal + be + V1 + ing + obj||Modal Continuous का Passive नहीं बनाया जा सकता है ||
नोट: अगर Passive Voice ‘Continuous Tense’ में हो तो ‘being’ का प्रयोग करना न भूलें |
CHANGE THE VOICE
जैसे: 1. The committee is looking into the matter. (Active)
The matter is being looked into by the committee. (Passive)
नोट:Verb के बाद आने वाले preposition को P.V. में लगाना न भूलें |
2. They are laughing at you. (Active)
You are being laughed at by them. (Passive)
3. The accused is being produced before the court. (Passive)
The police are producing the accused before the court. (Active)
4. Right to protest peacefully is being demanded by the revolutionaries. (Passive)
The revolutionaries are demanding right to protest peacefully. (Active)
5. You were not taking the exam seriously. (Active)
The exam was not being taken seriously by you. (Passive)
|Perfect Present||Sub + has/have + V3 + obj||Obj + has / have + been + V3 + by + sub|
|Past Perfect||Sub + had + V3 + obj||Obj + had + been + V3 + by + sub|
|Future Perfect||Sub+shall/will+have+V3+obj||Obj+shall/will +have+been+V3+by + sub|
|Modal Perfect||Sub + Modal + have + V3 + obj||Obj + modal + have + been + V3 + by + sub|
नोट: अगर Passive Voice ‘Perfect Tense’ में हो तो ‘been’ का प्रयोग करना न भूलें |
CHANGE THE VOICE
जैसे: 1. Who has seen him? (Active)
By whom has he been seen? (Passive)
2. The news has surprised us. (Active)
We have been surprised at the news. (Passive)
3. He will have understood your ulterior motive by that time. (Active)
Your ulterior motive will have been understood by him by that time. (Passive)
4. The committee had looked into the matter impartially before he was found guilty.
The matter had been looked into by the committee impartially before it found him guilty.
नोट: कुछ ऐसे verbs होते है जिनके बाद fixed preposition आते है @known to, surprised at, amazed at, astonished at, startled at, vexed at, annoyed with somebody, annoyed at something, contained in, embodied in, crammed with, decorated with, filled with, ornamented with, thronged with, tired of. engulfed in.
जैसे: 1. The fire engulfed the building.
The building was engulfed in the fire.
2. This box contains ten cigars.
Ten cigars are contained in this box.
WH – QUESTIONS:
♦ Yes/No Questions का Passive बनाकर उसके पहले Interrogative Words जोड़ देने से Wh-Questions बन जाता है |
जैसे: Active: Have you broken the glass?
Passive: Has the glass been broken by you?
♦ अब इन Yes/No Questions के पहले Interrogative Word जोड़कर देखें –
Active: Why have you broken the glass?
Passive: Why has the glass been broken by you?
♦ यह Rule – Why, How, When, Where, What आदि के साथ लागू होते है | किन्तु Who या Whom आदि से शुरू होने वाले Questions के Passive को देखें –
Active: Who wrote the Ramayana?
Passive: By whom was the Ramayana written?
Who was the Ramayana written by?
[Whom was the Ramayana written by? कहना गलत है |]
Active: Whom have you invited?
Passive: Who has been invited by you?
|1. With obj
(i) Shut the door (A.V.)1st way Let the door be shut.
Let + obj + be + V32nd way You are ordered to shut
the door. (P.V.)
You are ordered/ requested/ forbidden etc. + to + V1 + obj.
| 2. Without obj
(i) Go away. (A.V.)You are ordered to
go away. (P.V.)You are ordered/ requested/ forbidden etc. + to + V1 + obj.
(i) Help the poor. (A.V.)The poor should be helped. (P.V.)Obj + should + be + V3
INFINITIVE (TO + V1)
Active: To + V1
Passive: To + be + V3
1. Active : I am to do it.
Passive : It is to be done by me.
2. Active: You are to write it in ink.
Passive: It is to be written in ink.
नोट: ‘to + V1’ को passive voice में ‘to + be + V3’ में परिवर्तित कर देते है पर हमेशा नहीं किया जा सकता| अगर ‘to + V1’ को करने वाले subject का उल्लेख ‘to + V1’ से पहले हो चुका हो तो ‘to + V1’ को ‘to + be + V3’ में परिवर्तित न करें|
जैसे: Active: The teacher gave me a book to read.
Passive: I was given a book to read by my teacher.
HAVE/HAS/HAD + TO + V
Active: S + have / has/ had + to + V1 + Obj
Passive: Obj + have / has / had + to + be + V3 + by + sub .
जैसे: (i) Active: I have to finish this work .
Passive: This work has to be finished by me
(ii) Active: You have to choose a dress.
Passive: A dress has to be chosen by you.
VERB- LET, BID, HELP, MAKE
♦ Verb- Let, bid, help और make का प्रयोग active voice में direct infinitive (बिना ‘to’ के) के साथ होता है|
जैसे: 1. She let me go .
2. I bade him leave the room.
3. They must help me finish the work.
4. I made him wash all the clothes.
Let को छोड़ कर बाकि सभी verbs का प्रयोग passive voice में ‘to’ के साथ होगा| ‘Let’ active व passive दोनों में ‘to’ के बिना होगा ।
जैसे: 1. He was bidden to leave the room by me.
2. I must be helped to finish the work.
3. He was made to wash all the clothes by me.
नोट: ‘Let’ का प्रयोग वाक्य में अलग अलग अर्थ में हो सकता है| Passive voice में भी उसी अनुसार परिवर्तन होंगे |
जैसे: 1. Let me play (अनुमति)
I may be allowed to play.
2. Let him do this work.
Let this work be done by him.
3. Let us organize a party (सलाह, वाक्य में object भी है )
A party should be organized.
4. Let us help the poor. (नैतिक सलाह)
The poor should be helped.
VERBS FOLLOWED BY ADJECTIVES.
Rose smells sweet. (Active)Rose is sweet when it is smelt. (Passive)Sub + verb + adjective + when + pronoun + H.V + V
जैसे: 1. Quinine tastes bitter. (Active)
Quinine is bitter when it is tasted. (Passive)
2. Those mangoes tasted sour. (Active)
Those mangoes were sour when they were tasted. (Passive)