Narration के अंतर्गत हम Direct एवं Indirect Speech पढ़ते है |
♦ जब कोई व्यक्ति किसी वक्ता के कहे हुए कथन को बिना किसी परिवर्तन के अभिव्यक्त करे तो वह Direct Speech कहलाता है |
जैसे: Ram says , ” I work hard .”
♦ जब कोई व्यक्ति किसी वक्ता के कथन को कुछ जरूरी परिवर्तन कर प्रस्तुत करे तो वह Indirect Speech कहलाता है |
जैसे: Ram says that he works hard.
ASSERTIVE SENTENCES (कथनात्मक वाक्य )
(1) He says, “I work hard.” (Direct Speech)
He says that he works hard. (Indirect speech)
ASSERTIVE SENTENCES को DIRECT से INDIRECT SPEECH में परिवर्तन करने के नियम
(1) Comma एवं inverted commas को हटाएँ और Conjunction ‘that’ का प्रयोग करें|
(2) Pronoun निचे दिए गए नियमानुसार परिवर्तित करें |
Sub Obj Noun
S O N यानी 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
1 2 3 I, we you he,she,it,they
जैसे: (i) He says, ” I work hard”
He says that he works hard.
(ii) He says to me, ” You work hard.”
He tells me that I work hard
(iii) He says to me, “She works hard.”
He tells me that she works hard.
(3) Say/said को indirect speech में यथावत रहने दे| लेकिन ‘say to‘ को ‘tell‘ बना दे और ‘said to‘ को ‘told‘
जैसे: He says to me, “you work hard”.
He tells me that I work hard.
नोट: 1. tell और told के बाद to का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता|
2. tell और told के बाद obj का प्रयोग करना जरूरी होता है | इसी प्रकार ordered, requested, forbade इत्यादि के बाद भी एक object का प्रयोग होना चाहिए|
(4) अगर Reporting verb present अथवा future tense में हो, तो reported speech के tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होगा |
जैसे: He says, “I come here “.
He says that he comes here.
(5) अगर Reporting verb past में हो लेकिन reported speech universal truth/ Idiom/ Phrase/ habitual action अथवा historical fact हो तो reported speech के tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं किया जाता है|
जैसे: He said, “The Sun is a star”
He said that the Sun is a star
(6) अगर Reporting verb past में हो और Reported speech idiom / phrase इत्यादि नहीं हो तो Reported Speech में निम्नलिखित परिवर्तन किये जाते है|
जैसे: He said, “I came here yesterday”.
He said that he had come there the previous day.
(1) CHANGE IN TENSE
♦ Simple present -> Simple past -> Past perfect -> No change
V1/do/does V2 /did had+ V3
♦ Present continuous -> Past continuous -> Past perfect continuous ->No change
is/am/are was/were had been
♦ Present perfect / present perfect continuous -> Past perfect / past perfect continuous -> No change
(2) CHANGE OF MODALS
shall/will -> should / would
may -> might
can -> could
(3) CHANGE IN TIME AND PLACE
today -> that day, tomorrow -> the next day, yesterday -> the previous day/ the day before, tonight -> that night, Last -> the previous, here -> there, this -> that, these -> those, ago -> before, now -> then.
1. She said, “I cannot help you at this time.”
She said that she couldn’t help me at that time.
2. He said to me, “I shall come to meet you tomorrow.”
He told me that he would come to meet me the next day.
3. Ram said, “I haven’t taken any exam this year but I intend to take two exams the next year”
Ram said that he hadn’t taken any exam that year but he intended to take two exams the next year.
4.He said, “Virtue is its own reward”.
He said that virtue is its own reward (वाक्य phrase है)
5. Our teacher said, “We have to finish this work today as we know that tomorrow never comes.”
Our teacher said that we had to finish that work that day as we know that tomorrow never comes.
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES (प्रश्नात्मक वाक्य)
|He said to me, “Are you coming?”
(जवाब हाँ या न में हो सकता है)
He asked me whether I was coming.
|He said to me, “when are you coming?”
(सवाल wh family का है )
He asked me when I was coming
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES को DIRECT से INDIRECT SPEECH में परिवर्तित करने के नियम
(1) ‘Said to’ को asked, questioned, enquired, interrogated इत्यादि में परिवर्तित करें |
(2) Question mark (?) को full stop (.) में परिवर्तित करें |
(3) वाक्य का formation interrogative नहीं होगा | यानि helping verb का प्रयोग subject के बाद होगा|
(4) Tense, pronoun इत्यादि में परिवर्तन नियमानुसार होंगे |
(5) अगर सवाल का जवाब ‘हाँ’ या ‘ना’ में दिया जा सकता है तो conjunction ‘if’ या ‘whether‘ का ‘wh family‘ के सवाल में कोई conjunction का प्रयोग नहीं होगा|
1. He said to me, “Do you know me?” He asked me if I knew him.
2. She said to him, “What are you doing now?” She asked him what he was doing then.
3. He said to him, “Did you intend to come with me?” He asked him if he had intended to come with him.
4. He said to her, “Haven’t you seen this movie?” He asked her if she hadn’t seen that movie.
5. He said to her, “Madam, can I help you?” She said, “no”
He asked her respectfully if he could help her. She answered in the negative.
6. He said to me, “When will the train arrive?” He enquired of me when the train would arrive
Explanation to sentence 5:
5. अगर Direct Speech में Sir/Madam / Your Honour जैसे सम्मानसूचक शब्दों का प्रयोग हो तो Indirect Speech में इन्हे हटा दें और ‘respectfully’ शब्द का प्रयोग करें |
♦ लेकिन अगर Dear / Darling / My beloved जैसे प्रेमसूचक शब्दों का प्रयोग हो तो उन्हें हटाकर ‘lovingly’ या ‘affectionately’ शब्द का प्रयोग करें|
♦ अगर जवाब ‘yes’ हो तो ‘answered in the affirmative’ का प्रयोग करें और अगर जवाब ‘No’ है तो ‘answered in the Negative’ का प्रयोग करें|
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES (आज्ञा सूचक वाक्य )
He said to me, “Go away.”
He ordered me to go away.
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES को DIRECT से INDIRECT SPEECH में परिवर्तन करने के नियम
1. ‘Said to‘ को जरुरत के अनुसार ordered / requested/ forbade / suggested इत्यादि में परिवर्तित करें |
2. Conjunction ‘to’ का प्रयोग करें|
3. ‘To’ के बाद V1 आता है|
4. Tense, pronoun इत्यादि में परिवर्तन नियमानुसार होंगे|
1. She said to me, “Do not come here” / She forbade me to come there.
She ordered me not to come there.
2. He said, “call the first witness now.”
He ordered them to call the first witness then.
3. She said, “Spread the clothes in the sunlight and do not wash anything else.” She ordered him to spread the clothes in the sunlight and not to wash anything else.
4. The captain said to the soldiers, “Stand at ease.”
The captain commanded the soldiers to stand at ease.
5. My mother said to me, “Help others but do not expect anything in return.” My mother advised me to help others but not to expect anything in return.”
EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES (विस्मयादिबोधक वाक्य)
She said, “Alas! I am undone.”
She exclaimed with sorrow that she was undone.
EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES को DIRECT में INDIRECT SPEECH परिवर्तन करने के नियम
1. (a) Said + Alas ! -> changes to -> exclaimed with sorrow.
Said + Hurray ! -> changes to -> exclaimed with joy
Said + Fi ! / Ugh ! -> changes to -> exclaimed with despise/disgust.
Said + Wow ! -> changes to -> exclaimed with joy.
Said + Oh ! -> changes to -> exclaimed with surprise / regret.
2. Conjunction ‘that‘ का प्रयोग करें|
3. Tense, pronoun इत्यादि में परिवर्तन नियमानुसार होंगे|
1 he said, “Hurray! we have won this match”
he exclaimed with joy that they had won that match.
2. he said, “How beautiful is the rain!”
he exclaimed with joy that the rain was very beautiful.
3. He said,”Bravo ! you have done well.”
He applauded him saying that he had done well
4. She said, “What a pleasant surprise!”
She exclaimed that it was a pleasant surprise.
OPTATIVE SENTENCES (इच्छासूचक वाक्य)
He said, “May God bless you.”
He prayed that God might bless me.
OPTATIVE SENTENCES को DIRECT से INDIRECT SPEECH में परिवर्तित करने के नियम
1. ‘Said‘ को ‘wished‘ अथवा ‘prayed‘ में परिवर्तित करें |
2. Conjunction ‘that‘ का प्रयोग करें|
3. Tense, pronoun इत्यादि के परिवर्तन नियमानुसार होंगे |
1. She said, “May, God pardon him.”
She prayed that God might pardon him.
2. They said, “long live the king.”
They prayed that the king might live long.
कुछ महत्वपूर्ण बिंदु:
1. Need not, used to, would rather, would better, had rather, had better में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता |
जैसे: He said, “I used to go to school by bus.”
He said that he used to go to school by bus.
2. अगर past continuous का प्रयोग time clause में हो तो tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होगा |
जैसे: He said to me, “While I was studying, you were playing.”
He told me that while he was studying, I was playing.
3. अगर past indefinite tense का प्रयोग time clause में हो तो tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होगा |
जैसे: He said, “When I met him, he was playing.”
He said that when he met him, he was playing.
4. अगर past indefinite का प्रयोग दो simultaneous actions में हो तो tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होगा |
जैसे: She said, “I prepared the tea and he fried the chips.”
She said that she prepared the tea and he fried the chips.
5 . अगर past indefinite का प्रयोग historical(ऐतिहासिक) घटना के लिए हो तो tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होगा |
जैसे: He said, “Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement ”
He said that Gandhiji started the Quit India movement.
6. Will/ shall का परिवर्तन would/ should में होता है पर will/ shall का परिवर्तन ‘should’ में होगा अगर वाक्य सलाह सम्बंधित हो |
(i) He said, “I shall come tomorrow.”
He said that he would come the next day.
(ii) She said to me, “What shall I do after the exam?”
She asked me what she should do after the exam.
7. वाक्य के अर्थ को देखते हुए कई बार modals में परिवर्तन किए जाते है |
(i) She said, “If I get selected, I need not take any exam further.”
She said that if she got selected, she would not have to take any exam further.
(ii) He said, “Need I send an e-mail?’
He asked me if he had to send an e-mail.
(iii) He said, “When I was a kid, I could not go out alone,” (यहाँ ‘could’ का प्रयोग अनुमति के लिए हुआ है |)
He said that when he was a kid, he was not allowed to go out alone.
(iv) She said, “Rohit, you must be prudent.” (यहाँ ‘must’ का प्रयोग आदेश के लिए हुआ है |)
She ordered Rohit to be prudent.