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CONJUNCTION

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♦    Conjunction वह शब्द या शब्द समूह है जो दो या दो से अधिक (Words), शब्द समूह (Phrases), वाक्यांशों (Clauses) तथा वाक्य (Sentences) को जोड़ता है ;

जैसे: 1. Ram and Shyam will come.

2. People’s ignorance and population explosion are two inter-related problems.

3. She said that she would come.

♦    यहाँ वाक्य (1) में ‘and’ दो शब्दों ‘Ram’ तथा ‘Shyam’ को जोड़ता है, वाक्य (2) में ‘and’ दो शब्द समूहों ‘people’s ignorance’ तथा ‘population explosion’ को जोड़ता है, तथा वाक्य (3) में ‘that’ दो वाक्यों ‘she said’ तथा ‘she would come’ को जोड़ता है | अत: ‘and’ तथा ‘that’ Conjunctions हैं|


Some Common Conjunctions Meaning in Hindi

And – और

As well as – साथ ही साथ
Otherwise, or else Therefore – नहीं तो

So, hence – इसीलिए
Either….. or – या तो ——- या
Consequently – अत: इसलिए

Both…. and – दोनों………..और
Neither… nor u –  न तो …………न

Too….to – इतना…………कि
So…. that -इतना ……………..कि

As…….. as – इतना ……………..जितना
So……. as – इतना………..जितना

As……….. so -जैसा…………..वैसा
Whether…… or – या……..या

But – पर, परन्तु, लेकिन
As soon as – जैसे ही……………..वैसे ही

No sooner……. than – जैसे ही ………….वैसे ही
Or…………– या, अथवा, नहीं तो

Scarcely……. when – मुश्किल से ………….कि
Not only…….. but also – न ही सिर्फ…बल्कि

Hardly……… when – मुश्किल से……कि
Where – जहाँ
Wherever – जहाँ कहीं भी

When – जब
Whenever – जब

Until/Unless….- तब तक………..जब तक
While -के दौरान

Because – क्योंकि
As…. – क्योंकि…….इसलिए

Lest…… should – ऐसा न हो कि , वर्ना

Such…..that – इतना …कि

Provided – बशर्ते

Though – यद्यपि………फिर भी / तथापि

Whereas – जबकि

As though – मानो

If  – यदि
As if  – मानो…कि
Although – यद्यपि…………फिर भी / तथापि
Nevertheless – के बावजूद (in spite of)
As far as – जहाँ तक

 

TYPES OF CONJUNCTION

♦    Conjunctions निम्नलिखित दो प्रकार होते है|

1. Co-ordinating Conjunction.
2. Subordinating Conjuncion.

1. CO-ORDINATING CONJUNCTION:- नीचे दिए गए वाक्यों को पढ़े-

1. He read the notes and returned it to me.
2. He came to meet me, but I was not at home.

3. She worked hard yet she failed.

♦    इन वाक्यों में ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘yet’ नामक Conjunctions द्वारा दो ऐसे वाक्यों को जोड़ा गया है, जो स्वयं अपना अलग अलग अर्थ प्रकट कर सकते है | अब यदि इन वाक्यों को अलग अलग clauses में बांटा जाए तो एक Principal Clause बनेगी और दूसरी Co-ordinate Clause बनेगी|

♦    जिस Conjunction से कोई Co-ordinate Clause बानी हो, उस Conjunction को Co-ordinating Conjunction कहते है|

Co-ordinating Conjunctions निम्नलिखित चार प्रकार के होते है-
(i) Cumulative conjunctions (संयोजक)
‘And’, ‘also’, ‘both ….. and’, ‘as well as’, ‘now’, ‘too’, ‘no less than’.

♦    इन Conjunctions के द्वारा एक sentence को दूसरे sentence से या दो noun, दो pronoun को या दो adjectives इत्यादि को जोड़ा जाता है|
जैसे: 1. He is rich and happy .
2. Ram as well as Shyam is coming.

 

(ii) Alternative Conjunctions (विकल्पक)
‘Either . . . . . or’, ‘neither . . . . . nor’, ‘else’, or, ‘otherwise’.

♦    इन Conjunctions के द्वारा दो ऐसे sentences, nouns, pronouns इत्यादि को जोड़ा जाता है, जिनसे दो विकल्पों में से एक को चुनने का बोध होता है|
जैसे: 1. Either sit quietly or go away.
2. You must run fast else you will miss the train.

 

(iii) Adversative Conjunctions (विरोध दर्शक)

‘But’, ‘yet’, ‘still’, ‘only’, ‘however’, ‘nevertheless’, ‘while’, ‘whereas’. जैसे Conjunctions के द्वारा दो ऐसे वाक्यों को अथवा Nouns, Pronouns इत्यादि को जोड़ा जाता है जो एक-दूसरे के विपरीत हो|
जैसे: 1. He is rich but he is not happy.

2. He is industrious still he does not get good marks.

 

(iv) Illative Conjunctions (परिणामसूचक)

♦    इन conjunctions के द्वारा दो ऐसे वाक्यों को जोड़ा जाता है, जिनमे से एक वाक्य दुसरे वाक्य का परिणाम हो |

जैसे: I was ill so I could not come.

 

2. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION:- नीचे दिए गए वाक्यों को पढ़ें-

1. If you work hard, you will succeed.
2. Since I was busy, I could not call you up.

♦    इन sentences में ‘if’, ‘since’ के जैसे Conjunctions के द्वारा एक Clause को दूसरी ऐसी Clause से जोड़ा गया है, जिसके बिना वह अपना अर्थ व्यक्त नहीं कर पाती अर्थात वह उस पर पूरी तरह आश्रित है | यदि इन sentences को Clause में बांटा जाए, तो एक Principal Clause बनेगी और दूसरी Subordinate (आश्रित) Clause.

♦    जिस Conjunction के द्वारा Subordinate Clause बनी हो, उसे Subordinating Conjunction कहते है|

 

Subordinating conjunctions अपने अर्थ के अनुसार निम्नलिखित बात प्रकट करते है|

(i) Time:- When, whenever, till, until, before, since, while, as soon as, as long as, just as.

1. When I saw him, I stopped my car.

2. As soon as it rains, the farmers will sow the seeds.

 

(ii) Place(स्थान):Where,wherever,.COM
1. You can go wherever you want.

 

(iii) Cause (कारण): Since, because, as,
1. he came because I called him up.
2. As he is a miser, no one likes him.

 

(iv) Purpose (उद्देश्य): That, so that, in order that, lest
1. We eat so that we may live.
2. Run fast lest you should miss the train.

 

(v) Result (परिणाम): So . . . . ., that, such . . . that
1. He is so weak that he cannot even stand.
2. He is such a fool that he doesn’t understand anything.

 

(vi) Condition (शर्त): If, supposing, unless, provided.
1. He cannot succeed unless he works hard.
2. I will help him provided he mends his ways.

 

(vii) Manner (ढंग): As, as if, as though, as far as.
1. He scolded me as if he were my father.

नोट: अगर ‘as’ the का अर्थ ‘चूँकि’ हो तो उसके बाद ‘so’ का प्रयोग न करें|

As I was ill, so I could not come (Remove ‘so’)

♦    ‘Since’ के साथ भी ‘so’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता|

Since he is a liar , so I do not trust him (Remove ‘so’)

 

(viii) Comparison (तुलना): As, as ….. as, so……as, than
1. A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend.
2. He is as good as she at English.

नोट: (1) So . . . as/As. . . as का प्रयोग दो व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं की तुलना के लिए किया जाता है | ध्यान रखें-

(A) So . . . as का प्रयोग Negative वाक्य में होता है|
जैसे: (i) He is not so good as you. (Negative)

♦    किन्तु As . . . as का प्रयोग Affirmative तथा Negative दोनों ही प्रकार के वाक्यों में किया जाता है :
जैसे:
(i) He is as good as you. (Affirmative)
(ii) He is not as good as you. (Negative)

 

(ix) Contrast (अंतर): Though, although, however

1. Though he worked hard, he failed.
2. I tried very hard however I could not win the race.

 

3. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION:- जो Conjunctions जोड़े (pair) में प्रयुक्त होते है, उन्हें Correlatives (संकेतबोधक) कहते है| जैसे: ‘Either …… or’, ‘neither ….. nor’, ‘both ….. and’, ‘not only …… but also’, ‘though …. yet’, ‘whether…or’

जैसे: Neither his friends nor his parents knew about his evil intention.
I do not know whether he will come or not.

 

4. COMPOUND CONJUCTION:- Conjunctions जब शब्दों का समूह हो तो Compound Conjunction कहलाते है|

In order that. – The announcement was made in order that all might know the new date of exam.
On condition that – I will give you money on condition that you will not misuse it.
Even if – She will succeed in life even if she faces some initial failures.
So that – We eat so that we may live.
Provided that – You can take any dress provided that you return it after the party.
As though – He shows off as though he is very rich.
As well as – Ram as well as his friends has come to the party.
As soon as – The farmers will sow the seeds as soon as it rains.
As if – He scolded me as if he were my father.

 

CONJUNCTION के कुछ IMPORTANT RULES जिनसे प्रश्न पूछे जाते हैं:

RULE 1

1. And
2. as well as
3. Both ——— and
4. Not only ——— but also

♦    इन चारों conjunctions का प्रयोग Noun , Pronoun इत्यादि को जोड़ने के लिए किया जाता है लेकिन जहाँ तक adjective का प्रश्न है ये सिर्फ दो desirable adjectives को या फिर दो undesirable adjectives को जोड़ते हैं|
जैसे: He is both intelligent and hard working.
He is not only dishonest but also lazy.

 

RULE 2

♦     यदि दो Sub को ‘as well as’/’with’/’along with’/ ‘and not’/ ‘In addition to’/ ‘but’/ ’besides’/‘except’/ ‘rather than’/’accompanied by’ से जोड़ा जाए तो verb का प्रयोग पहले sub के अनुसार होना चाहिए|

Ram as well as his friends is coming.
He and not his parents is guilty.

 

RULE 3

♦    कई बार Conjunction गलत स्थान पर प्रयोग क्र लिए जाते है|

जैसे: Not only he cheated his friends but also his parents. (×)

He cheated not only

♦    इस वाक्य में his friends एवं his parents दो विकल्प हैं | but also his parents के पहले प्रयोग करें और ‘but also’ ‘his parents’ के पहले

अन्य उदाहरण :
(1) Sit either quietly or go away. (×)

(2) Neither the poor villagers grow nor eat vegetables. (×)

♦    दोनों वाक्य गलत है क्योंकि Conjunctions जब जोड़े में हो | (Co-Relatives) तो उनका प्रयोग वाक्य में मौजूद विकल्प के ठीक पहले होना चाहिए|
जैसे: (1) Either sit quietly or go away. (✓)
(2) The poor villagers neither grow nor eat vegetables. (✓)

 

RULE 4

♦    Conjunctions जब जोड़े में हो तो जोड़ा सही होना चाहिए|

जैसे: Though – Yet/,
Although – Yet/,
No sooner – than
Hardly/Scarcely – when
As – as
So – as
Lest – should
Too – to
So – that
Between – and
From – to
Else – but
Other/Rather – than
Such – that
Whether – or
The same – that
Both – and
Not only – but also

जैसे: (1) Though he worked hard but he failed. (×)
Though he worked hard yet he failed. (✓)
(2) He is both intelligent as well as industrious. (×)
He is both intelligent and industrious. (✓)
(3) The party is between 7 p.m and 9 p.m. (✓)
(4) The party is from 7 p.m to 9 p.m. (✓)
(5) I have no other aim but to succeed in life. (×)
(6) I have no other aim than to succeed in life (✓)
(7) Nothing else but arrogance ruined him. (✓)
(8) He asked me if I was coming or not. (×)
(9)He asked me whether I was coming or not. (✓)

 

RULE 5

So ……… that
too.. ……..to
इतना ……………..कि

जैसे: (1) I am so happy. (×)
I am very happy. (✓)
(2) 1. He is so tired that he can’t walk.( ‘so—that के स्थान पर ‘too ….. to’ का भी प्रयोग हो सकता है अगर वाक्य देखें )
He is too tired to walk.

2. It is too hot to go out.
It is so hot that we cannot go out.

3. She is so weak that she cannot walk.
She is too weak to walk.

4. This problem is so complicated that no one can solve it.
This problem is too complicated for anyone to solve it.

♦   अगर ’to solve’ के पहले for ‘any one’ का उल्लेख नहीं किया जाये तो solve का sub ‘problem’ हो जाएगा और वाक्य का अर्थ गलत निकलेगा | ध्यान रहे अगर ‘that’ के बाद ‘sub’ परिवर्तित हो जाए तो ‘to + v1 ‘ 2nd Sub का उल्लेख होना जरुरी है|

5. It is so expensive that I cannot buy it.
It is too expensive for me to buy it.

♦   दूसरा तरीका : वाक्य 3 एवं 4 में अगर हम वाक्य के दूसरे भाग को Passive voice में लिखें तो कर्त्ता का उल्लेख by + Sub के रूप में हो सकता है | तब 2nd sub जो 1st sub से भिन्न है ‘by+sub’ के form में आ जाएगा और वाक्य का अर्थ सही निकलेगा |
to + V1 (infinitive) active voice है
to + be + V3 – Passive voice है

4. This problem is too complicated to be solved by anyone.

5. It is too expensive to be bought by me.

 

RULE 6
neither…………… nor ( दो में से एक भी नहीं )
either……………….. or (दो में से एक)
Neither Ram nor Shyam has come.

Neither Ram nor his friends have come.

Has Ram or his friends come?

♦   यदि दो sub को ‘Neither………nor’, ‘either……or’, ‘nor’ अथवा ‘or’ से जोड़ा जाए तो verb अपने से नजदीक वाले subject के अनुसार होगा |

 

RULE 7
♦   Neither of… का अर्थ है दो में से एक भी नहीं | अगर दो से अधिक मौजूद हो तो ‘None of‘ का प्रयोग करें|

♦   Either of … का अर्थ है दो में से एक – अगर दो से अधिक मौजूद हो तो ‘one of‘ का प्रयोग करें|

जैसे: Neither of his four sons looked after him. (×)
None of his four sons looked after him. (✓)
Either of the students of your class has done this mischief. (×)
One of the students of your class has done this mischief. (✓)

 

RULE 8

as soon as ………………….,

जैसे ही वैसे ही

As soon as he will come, I will call you up.(×)
As soon as he comes, I will call you up. (✓)

♦   अगर दो कार्य, भविष्य में एक के बाद एक हो और दूसरे कार्य का होना पहले कार्य के होने पर निर्भर करे तो पहला कार्य Simple Present Tense में होगा और दूसरा Simple future tense में होगा (Future Conditional Sentences देखें)

 

RULE 9

नोट: If/when का जोड़ा then नहीं होता है |

जैसे: When I come, then, I will meet you.

♦   इसी प्रकार Since/as/because के साथ so/therefore का प्रयोग नहीं होता है|

जैसे: Since I was ill, I could not come.

नोट: As you sow, so shall you reap में as के साथ so का प्रयोग होता है|

 

RULE 10

No sooner……………… than
Hardly ………………….. when
Scarcely ……………….. when
नोट: (1) इन तीनो Co-relatives में जोड़ा सही नहीं होना चाहिए
जैसे: No sooner did he see me when he ran away (when हटा कर than का प्रयोग करें|)
No Sooner had the thief seen the police then he ran away.(change ‘then’ to ‘than’)
(2) इन तीनो co-relatives का प्रयोग केवल Past Tense में करें|
(3) अगर वाक्य की शुरुआत Hardly, Scarcely etc. से हो तो उसके बाद वाक्य का formation interrogative के तरीके से होगा यानि Helping verb + Sub + main verb (Had + S + V3 or Did + S + V1) लेकिन इससे वाक्य प्रश्न नहीं बनता है|

Hardly I saw him when I stopped my car. (×)
Hardly did I see him when I stopped my car. (✓)

 

RULE 11

Lest………………… Should
………….. or……………….
……………else…………..
……………..otherwise………..

सही जोड़े का प्रयोग करें|
Run fast lest you will miss the train. (×)
Run fast lest you should miss the train. (✓)

 

RULE 12

Unless , Until and Till
1. Until तथा unless में फर्क यह है की until समयसूचक है तथा unless शर्त सूचक है

जैसे: Until the light turns red, no one will stop.

Unless you work hard, you won’t succeed.

2. हम till से वाक्य की शुरुआत महि करते|

जैसे: Till the train gets the signal, it will not proceed (×) (Till को Until में परिवर्तित करें|)

 

RULE 13

♦   ‘Until / Unless’ के साथ not का प्रयोग नहीं होता है|

जैसे: Until the train will not get the signal, it will not run. (×)
Until the train gets the signal, it will not run. (✓)
नोट: Until एवं Unless के साथ will/would/shall का भी प्रयोग नहीं होता

जैसे: Unless the Government will not take action , corruption will not stop. (×)
Unless the Government takes action , corruption will not stop. (✓)

नोट: कई बार शब्दों पर जोर देने के लिए दो Conjunctions, Prepositions, Pronouns या Adjectives का प्रयोग एक साथ किया जाता है हालाँकि दोनों का अर्थ लगभग एक ही होता है|

जैसे: 1- Unless and until you work hard, you won’t succeed.
2. The selling price of every commodity was over and above the M.R.P.
3. The first and foremost duty of every citizen is to respect his country. 4. Each and every student must take the exam.

 

RULE 14

♦    Doubt के बाद affirmative sentence में if/whether का प्रयोग होता है, जबकि negative व् Interrogative sentence में doubt के बाद that का प्रयोग होता है|

♦   Doubtful के बाद भी ‘Affirmative sentence‘ में ‘if/whether‘ का प्रयोग होता है जबकि Negative व् Interrogative sentence में doubtful के बाद that का प्रयोग होता है| जैसे:

AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE  –> NEGATIVE / INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

Doubt————— if/whether –> Doubt————— that
Doubtful————— if/whether –> Doubtful————— that

जैसे: 1. He doubts that she will help him. (×)
He doubts if/whether she will help him.(Affirmative Sentence)
2. I have no doubt if/whether he will cheat me.(×) I have no doubt that he will cheat me. Negative
3. I am doubtful that my parents will allow me to go to the party. (×)
I am doubtful if/whether my parents will allow me to go to the party. (Affirmative Sentence)
4. He is not doubtful if/whether I will finish his work in time (×)
He is not doubtful that I will finish his work in time. (Negative Sentence)

 

RULE 15

♦    ‘The same’ के बाद Relative Pronouns ‘that’ या ‘as’ का प्रयोग होता है|

♦    ‘The same’ के बाद ‘that’ का प्रयोग होता है जब इसके बाद Verb स्पष्ट हो|

जैसे: (i) This is the same book that I wanted .
(ii) He is the same boy that met me in the market

♦   किन्तु ‘the same‘ के बाद ‘as’ का प्रयोग तब होता है जब Verb स्पष्ट नहीं होता|

जैसे: (i) This is the same book as mine. (as के बाद verb का प्रयोग स्पष्ट रूप से नहीं है)
‘the same’ के बाद who/which आदि का प्रयोग न करें|

 

RULE 16

(i) As …. as एवं so …. as का प्रयोग तुलना के लिए किया जाता है | As ….. as का प्रयोग Positive एवं Negative वाक्यों में होता है और so….as का प्रयोग सिर्फ negative वाक्यों में होता है |

जैसे: 1. He is as intelligent as you. (+ve वाक्य)
2. He is not as intelligent as you. (-ve वाक्य)
3. He is not so intelligent as you. (-ve वाक्य)

(ii) As….as एवं so …. as के साथ adverb एवं adjective के सिर्फ Positive Degree का प्रयोग होता है|

जैसे: 1. He ran as faster as he could. (faster को fast में परिवर्तित करें|)

2. He is as better as you. (better को good में परिवर्तित करें|)

 

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