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ADVERB

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ADVERB वह शब्द है जो

(i) किसी क्रिया (Verb) कि विशेषता बताता है|
जैसे: He works hard

(ii) किसी विशेषण (Adjective) कि विशेषता बताता है|
जैसे: He is very good .

(iii) किसी क्रिया विशेषण (Adverb) कि विशेषता बताता है|

जैसे: he works very hard .


(iv) किसी Preposition कि विशेषता बताता है|
जैसे: The helicopter hovered exactly over his house.

(V) किसी Conjunction कि विशेषता बताता है|
जैसे: He likes her simply because she has a clear conscience.

(vi) किसी वाक्य (Sentence) कि विशेषता बताता है|

जैसे: Fortunately, no one was hurt .

(vii) सामान्यत: Noun या Pronoun कि विशेषता बताने का काम Adjectives करते है, किन्तु कुछ ऐसे Adverbs है जो किसी Noun या Pronoun कि विशेषता बताते है | ये adverbs है – Only, even, at last, almost;

जैसे: 1. Only I know the truth.
2. Only Rohit can help you.

 

ADVERB तीन प्रकार के होते है|
1. Simple Adverb
2. Relative Adverb
3. Interrogative Adverb

1. SIMPLE ADVERB

♦   Simple Adverb के द्वारा समय (time), स्थान (place), संख्या(number or frequency), ढंग (manner), कारण (reason), परिणाम (degree), स्वीकृति अथवा निषेध (affirmation or negation) का बोध होता है|

ये सात प्रकार के है:-
(a) Adverb of Manner
♦    Adverb of manner shows how (ढंग ) – ये कार्य होने का तरीका बताता है|
जैसे: He works honestly.
He walks slowly.
Remember: Adjectives से बनने वाले Adverbs जिनके अंत में -ly होता है, प्राय: Adverbs of Manner कहलाते है|
Adjective — Adverb
Slow — Slowly
glad — gladly
Honest — Honestly.

नोट: Miser, Niggard एवं Coward ऐसे nouns हैं जिनके adjective forms को हम adverb forms मानने कि गलती कर बैठते है | इन nouns के adjective एवं adverb forms इस प्रकार हैं|

Noun0 Adjectives Form Adverb Form
Coward Cowardly in a Cowardly Manner.
Niggard Niggardly in a Niggardly Manner.
Miser Miserly in a Miserly manner.
Scholar Scholarly in a Scholarly Manner.

 

निचे दिए गए उदाहरण देखें|-
(1) He is miser. (×) (miser noun है अत: miser के पहले ‘a’ का प्रयोग करें|)
He is a miser. (✓)
(2) He is a miser man. (×) (man कि विशेषता बताने वाले adjective ‘miserly’ का प्रयोग करें|)
He is a miserly man.(✓)
(3) He behaved miserly. (×)(‘behaved’ verb है क्रिया कि विशेषता बताने के लिए adjective ‘miserly’ नहीं बल्कि adverb ‘in a miserly manner’ का प्रयोग करें|)
He behaved in a miserly manner. (✓)

Remember:

1. कुछ शब्द एक ही रूप (Form) में Adverb और Adjective कि तरह प्रयोग हो जाते है; ‘Fast, straight, outright, direct, hard, late’, ‘high’, ‘safe’, quiet इत्यादि adjective एवं adverb दोनों है |
जैसे: Adverb —————————Adjective
He works hard. ———————–This is a hard task.
He wakes up early. ——————-He came by an early flight.
Do not talk loud.———————- We should not speak in a loud tone.
Run fast. ——————————He is a fast runner.
He waited long for me. ————–He went on a long journey.
Come near. —————————He is of my near relation

2. किन्तु कुछ Adverbs के दो रूपों का अर्थ भिन्न होता है|

(a) Late — Lately
देर से हल — फ़िलहाल
जैसे: 1. I haven’t seen Akila lately.
2. He came late for the meeting.

(b) Hard — Hardly
मेहनत से — मुश्किल से
जैसे: 1. She works hardly to make both ends meet. (×)
She works hard to make both ends meet. (✓)
2. He hardly does any work. (✓)

(c) Free — Freely
मुफ्त में — स्वतंत्रता से

जैसे: 1. We can move about freely in India.
2. Rides are provided free in this water park.

♦   ‘Loudly’ and ‘Aloud’ adverbs है लेकिन अर्थ में भिन्न | Aloud का अर्थ है इतनी तेज़ आवाज ताकि वक्त audible हो परन्तु Loudly का अर्थ है ‘with a lot of noise’.

(b) Adverb of Time

♦   Adverb of Time shows when (समय) – ये कार्य होने का समय बताता है|

जैसे: I came late.

♦  समय दर्शाने वाले Adverbs निम्नलिखित है|

after, ago, early, late, now, then, soon, today, tomorrow आदि

 

(c) Adverb of Place

♦   Adverb of place shows where (स्थान) – ये कार्य होने का स्थान बताता है

जैसे: I could not find him anywhere.

♦   स्थान दर्शाने वाले मुख्यत: Adverb निम्नलिखित है|-
here, there, in, out, up, down, within above, below आदि|

 

(d) Adverbs of Frequency or Number

♦   Adverb of Frequency or Number shows how often (कितनी बार) ये कार्य होने कि frequency (आवृति) बताता है|

जैसे: I can never do so.
She seldom goes there.
She often comes to meet me.

♦  ‘Frequency’ को दर्शाने वाले मुख्य Adverbs निम्नलिखित है|

once, twice, thrice, always, never, seldom, often, frequently आदि

 

(e) Advers of Degree
♦   Adverb of degree shows how much (परिणाम) – ये बतात है कार्य कितना अधिक हुआ या कितना काम हुआ|

जैसे: The work is almost complete.
I am quite well.

♦  ‘Degree’ को दर्शाने वाले मुख्य: Adverbs निम्नलिखित है|

very, much, more, too, quite, little, almost आदि

 

(f) Adverb of Reason

♦   Adverb of Reason shows why (कारण) – ये कारण बताता है|

जैसे: I could not come because I was not well.

I don’t like him since he has cheated many people.

♦   ‘Reason’ को दर्शाने वाले मुख्य Adverbs निम्नलिखित है|

So, hence, therefore, on account of, consequently आदि

 

(g) 1. Adverbs of Affirmative (स्वीकारात्मक)

जैसे: She will truly help you.

I will surely repay the loan.

♦   ‘Affirmation’ को दर्शाने वाले Adverbs निम्नलिखित है|

surely, certainly, truly आदि

2. Adverbs of Negation (निषेधात्मक)
जैसे: She did not reply to my letter.
I have never cheated anybody.

♦   ‘Negation’ दर्शाने वाले मुख्य Adverbs निम्नलखित है|
No, not, never आदि

 

2. RELATIVE ADVERBS

♦  Relative Adverb वाक्यों को जोड़ता है | अपने antecedent (पूर्व प्रयुक्त Noun या Pronoun) कि ओर संकेत करते हुए time, place, reason और manner बताता है | Relative Adverbs हैं- When, Where, Why और How.
जैसे: I don’t know where he has gone.
He will come when I call him.

 

3. INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS
♦  Interrogative Adverbs हैं- Why, when, where, how.
जैसे: Why are you surprised?
Where has she seen me?
Adverb: Comparison

♦  Adjectives कि भांति कुछ Adverbs कि भी Degree of Comparison होती है|
जैसे:

Positive — Comparative —  Superlative
(a) Hard —  harder  — hardest
Fast  — faster —  fastest
Soon  — sooner  — soonest
near  — nearer —  nearest
early  — earlier  — earliest

(b) Beautifully —  more Beautifully —  most beautifully
Carefully  — more carefully —  most carefully
Swiftly —  more swiftly  — most swiftly
Slowly  — more slowly  — most slowly
Wisely  — more wisely —  most wisely

(c) Ill, Badly —  worse —  worst
Forth  — further  — furthest
Far  — farther  — farthest
Late  — later —  latest, last
Little  — less —  least
Much  — more  — most
Well  — better —  best

 

POSITION OF ADVERBS

♦  Adverb सदैव उस शब्द के निकट रखा जाता है जिसको यह modify करता है | यदि Adverb के Position को बदल दिया जाए तो वाक्य का अर्थ ही बदल जाता है|

जैसे: Only she saw my dress. –केवल उसने किसी और को नहीं देखा
She only saw my dress. ——–केवल देखा , और कुछ नहीं किया
She saw only my dress. ——–केवल मेरी dress, किसी और की नहीं
She saw my only dress.———एकमात्र dress जो मेरे पास थी
She saw my dress only. ——–केवल dress, पुस्तक या और कुछ नहीं |

 

1. वाक्य के आरम्भ में (At the beginning)

(i) Interrogative Adverb का प्रयोग सदैव sentences के आरम्भ में होता है|
जैसे: When are you returning home?

(ii) सरे वाक्य को modify करने के लिए Adverb आरम्भ में प्रयुक्त होता है|

जैसे: Surely, I will take care of you.

(iii) Emphasis के लिए भी Adverb आरम्भ में प्रयुक्त होता है|

जैसे: Off she goes.
Here comes the prince.

 

2. दो वाक्यों के मध्य में (In the Middle)

(i) कुछ Adverbs of Time (always, never, ever, often, seldom, sometimes आदि) उन Verbs से पहले प्रयुक्त होते है, जिनको ये modify करते है|

जैसे: he never comes here.
I seldom go there.

(ii) जब sentences में Auxiliary Verb दे रखा हो, तो Adverb का प्रयोग Auxiliary Verb और Main Verb के बीच में होता है|

जैसे: He will never come here.

I have seldom gone there.

(iii) Verb ‘to be’ का प्रयोग Main Verb की तरह हो या Helping Verb की तरह, Adverb का प्रयोग Verb के बाद ही किया जाता है|

जैसे: She is always happy.
I am never sad.
He is always praised for his sweet voice.

 

SEE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

I. He comes often every Sunday. (Place ‘often’ before ‘comes’)

II. He goes usually to shop every Sunday. (Place ‘usually’ before ‘goes’)

III. He is always happy. (✓)

 

USE OF SOME ADVERBS

1. Very तथा Much के प्रयोग में अंतर एवं समानताएं

(A) Very का प्रयोग Positive degree के साथ होता है; जैसे: very good, very wise, very lucky, very honest लेकिन much का Comparative Degree के साथ; जैसे: much better, much wiser, much luckier, much more honest etc.

नोट: very much + comparative degree का प्रयोग होता है ; जैसे: – Very much better, very much
wiser, very much luckier etc.

(B) Very या much का प्रयोग Superlative Degree के साथ भी होता है|
(a) The very best boy.

(C) Very का प्रयोग Present Participle के पहले होता है ; जैसे: very interesting, very daring, very confusing, very boring, very entertaining. किन्तु much का प्रयोग Past Participle के साथ; जैसे- much surprised, much grieved, much admired etc.

नोट: Very का प्रयोग Past Participle के पहले नहीं होता है किन्तु निम्नलिखित Past Participles के पहले Very का प्रयोग होता है| very tired, very dejected, very contented, very discontented, very pleased, very drunk, very limited, very delighted.

 

2. Quite का अर्थ है ‘perfectly या completely’ (पूर्णतया, पूर्णरूपेण) और इसका प्रयोग ‘very’ की जगह नहीं होता है| अत:

(i) She is quite lovely. (×)
(ii) You are quite handsome. (×)

इन वाक्यों का शुद्ध रूप है –

(i) She is very lovely.
(ii) You are very handsome.

 

3. Fairly तथा Rather

(A) Fairly का प्रयोग Positive Degree के साथ होता है | जैसे: fairly wise, fairly good, etc.

♦  किन्तु Rather का प्रयोग Positive तथा Comparative Degree के साथ होता है; जैसे – rather bad, rather difficult, rather worse, rather hotter, etc.

(B) Fairly के बाद too का प्रयोग नहीं होता है जबकि Rather के बाद too का प्रयोग भी होता है| जैसे –

(i) fairly too good कहना गलत है | लेकिन rather too good कहना बिलकुल सही है|

(C) Fairly के बाद Pleasant Adjectives का प्रयोग होता है ; जैसे-
fairly wise, fairly beautiful, etc.

♦   Rather के बाद unpleasant adjectives का; जैसे- rather wicked, rather difficult, rather troublesome, rather dull etc. किन्तु rather amusing, rather good, rather clever, rather pretty, rather beautiful का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है|

 

4. Too

(a) Too = का अर्थ है also

जैसे: I too was invited to tea.

(b) Too – का अर्थ है more than required (आवश्यकता से अधिक)

♦   इसका प्रयोग Unpleasant Adjectives के साथ होता है | जैसे- too bad, too naughty, too wicked, too fat, too dull, etc.

अत: too glad, to happy, to pleased, too healthy आदि कहना गलत है|

♦   I am too glad to meet you का अर्थ है ‘ मई आपसे मिलकर इतना खुश हूँ जितना नहीं होना चाहिए’ | इस वाक्य का शुद्ध रूप होगा
जैसे: I am very glad to meet you.

(c) Too …. to पर आधारित वाक्यों में too के बाद अर्थ के अनुसार Pleasant Adjective का प्रयोग भी हो सकता है|

जैसे: (i) He is too intelligent to be cheated. (=He is so intelligent that he cannot be cheated.)

Too + Adjective
1. He is too tall. ( वह इतना लंबा है जितना नहीं होना चाहिए|)
2. he is too slim. (वह इतनी ज्यादा दुबली-पतली है जितना नहीं होनी चाहिए)
3. It is too cold. (इतनी अधिक ठण्ड है जितनी नहीं होनी चाहिए)

Verb + Adjective
1. He is very tall. (वह बहुत लंबा है )
2. She is very slim. (वह बहुत दुबली-पतली है )
3. It is very cold. (बहुत ठण्ड है )

 

5. So

♦   ‘So’ का प्रयोग ‘very’ के स्थान पर नहीं हो सकता| ‘So’ के बाद ‘that’ का एवं ‘Too‘ के बाद ‘to‘ का प्रयोग किया जाता है|

जैसे: 1. I am so happy (Incorrect)

2. I am very happy (Correct)

3. I am so happy that I am unable to control my feelings (Correct)

 

6. Enough

(A) ‘Enough’ adjective एवं adverb दोनों ही रूप में कार्य कर सकता है | जब ‘enough’ adverb का कार्य करता है तो इसका प्रयोग उस adjective के बाद होता है जिसके लिए ये प्रयुक्त हुआ हो| Adjective के रूप में इसका प्रयोग उस Noun से पहले होता है जिसके लिए ये प्रयुक्त हुआ हो| इसका प्रयोग Noun से पहले परन्तु Adjective या Adverb के तुरंत बाद लगाया जाता है|

जैसे: 1. She is wise enough to understand your intention.

2. He has enough money to buy this car. (Correct)

♦   Enough के पहले हमेशा Adjective या Adverb के Positive Degree का प्रयोग होता है|

जैसे: 1. (A) He is / (B) faster enough / (C) to defeat / (D) you. / (E) No Error.

2. (A) He is bravest / (B) enough to be / (C) selected for / (D) the post of soldier. / (E) No Error.

♦   वाक्य (i) के Part (B) में faster के बदले fast तथा वाक्य (ii) के Part (A) में bravest के बदले brave
का प्रयोग होगा क्योंकि Positive Degree + enough का प्रयोग होता है|

 

7. Yet

♦   Yet का प्रयोग ‘अब तक’ अर्थात ‘बोलने के समय तक’ (up to the moment/time of speaking) के अर्थ में Interrogative तथा Negative Sentence में verb के बाद या verb + object के बाद होता है|

नोट: Yet का प्रयोग present perfect के -ve वाक्य में होता है न कि Past Tense में|
जैसे: 1. The postman did not come yet. (×)
2. The postman has not come yet. (✓)
3. Didn’t the postman come yet? (×)
4. Hasn’t the postman come yet? (✓)

 

SOME RULES

RULE 1
‘Else’ के बाद ‘but’ का प्रयोग करें|

♦  ‘Rather’, ‘Other’ एवं ‘otherwise’के बाद ‘than’ का प्रयोग करें|
जैसे: 1. I would rather die than beg.
2. It is nothing else than sheer foolishness. (Use ‘but’ in place of ‘than’)
3. Rahul had no other alternative but to work hard. (Use ‘than’ in place of ‘but’)
4. Rohit has no one else to talk to except his wife. (Use ‘but’ in place of ‘except’)

 

RULE 2

 Adverbs ‘Seldom, nowhere, never, nothing,hardly, scarcely, neither, barely, rarely’ के अर्थ नकारात्मक होते है| अत: इनका प्रयोग किसी दूसरे नकारात्मक शब्द के साथ न करें|
जैसे:
जैसे: 1. I rarely went to meet nobody. (Use ‘anybody’ in place of ‘nobody’)
2. She hardly knows nothing about me. (Use ‘anything’ in place of ‘nothing’)
3. I hardly know somebody in the city. (Say ‘anybody’ in place of ‘somebody’)

 

RULE 3

♦  Negative, शब्द जैसे ‘not‘ व् ‘never‘ का प्रयोग ‘deny, forbid, Unless, Until, lest,too …. to और ‘both’ के साथ न करें|
1. She denied that she had not done anything wrong. (Delete ‘not’)
2. Both of us are not going there. (×)
Neither of us is going there. (✓)
3. Unless he will not come, I will not go. (×)
Unless he comes, I will not go. (✓)

 

RULE 4

♦  (A) Adverb ‘as’ का प्रयोग निचे दिए गए verbs के साथ किया जा सकता है|
‘regard, describe, define, treat, view, know’.

(B) Adverb ‘as’ का प्रयोग निचे दिए गए verbs के साथ किया जा सकता है|
‘name, elect, think, consider, call, appoint, make, choose.’ e.g.,

1. I regard him my brother. (Add ‘as’ after ‘him’)

2. Biology has been defined the study of organism. (Add ‘as’ after ‘defined’)

3. She is considered as the best student of my class. (Drop ‘as’ after ‘considered’)

4. The teacher called him as stupid. (Drop ‘as’)

5. The principal appointed him as lecturer. (Remove ‘as’)

6. He thinks her as a fool. (Remove ‘as’)

 

RULE 5

♦   वाक्य में ‘adverb‘ के बाद ‘Helping verb‘ का प्रयोग करें और फिर ‘subject‘ का|

1. Seldom he comes to Delhi. (×)
Seldom does he come to Delhi. (✓)

2. Never I’ll go there. (×)
Never shall I go there. (✓)

3 No sooner she reached the station than the train left (×)
No sooner did she reach the station than the train left. (✓)

4. Hardly she had reached the station when the train arrived. (×)
Hardly had she reached the station when the train arrived. (✓)

5. So quickly she ran that she overtook her friends (×)
So quickly did she run that she overtook her friends. (✓)

6. His wife comes here and so does he.

7. He doesn’t know any one here and neither do I.

 

RULE 6

♦  (A) ‘Too’ and ‘as well’ का प्रयोग ‘Besides’, in ‘addition to’, ‘also’ के रूप में affirmative sentences में किया जाता है| ‘Also’ का प्रयोग वाक्य के अंत में नहीं करना चाहिए|
जैसे: She found her bag and money too/as well.

 

RULE 7

♦   ‘Seldom or never’, ‘seldom, if ever’, ‘little or nothing’, ‘little, if anything’ का प्रयोग वाक्य में किया जाता है परन्तु ‘seldom or ever‘ या ‘little or anything’ कहना गलत होगा|
जैसे: He seldom or never goes to see movies.

 

RULE 8

♦   Verbs of sensation (Taste, Smell, Feel, Appear, Seem, Sound, एवं Look) हमारे पांचो इन्द्रियों से सम्बंधित होते है| इनके बाद adverb नहीं adjective का प्रयोग करें|

जैसे: I look honest.
I work honestly.
I felt bad.
I sing badly.

♦  कुछ अन्य Verbs जिनके साथ adverb नहीं adjective का प्रयोग होता है – become, turn, get, grow, keep, make और prove.
जैसे: He got angry .

 

RULE 9

♦  Manly, masterly,slovenly,friendly,orderly,gentlemanly, sickly,weekly, monthly Adjectives है | ‘ly‘ में अंत होने के वजह से हम इन्हे adverb मानने कि भूल कर बैठते है |
जैसे: He behaved friendly. (×)
He behaved in a friendly manner. (✓)

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